English courses

Introduction

LEARNING

Chapta yetu ya kwanza ita kuwa

 

GREETIGS

 

 

Kwa luga la kingereza ukitaka ku salimu mwenzako uta sema hivi

ikiwa ni hasubui

goodmorning(gud moning) =jambo

nawe uta jibu

 goodmorning(gud moning)=jambo sana

ikiwa ni muchana uta sema hivi:

 goodafternoon(gudafta nun) = jambo

goodafternoon(gudafta-nun) = jambo sana

ikiwa ni jioni uta sema hivi

goodevining(gudiv-ning) = jambo

goodeving(gudiv-ning) = jambo sana

 

 

MATUMIZI ``HOW``

 

Namna yakwanza

 

Wakati unataka kujuwa habari yamutu utasema hivi:

how are you?(hawayu) = habari gani?

I am fine(ayem fain) = niko vizuri

una weza kutumiya vilevile ma jibu kama nahizi

I am okay(ayem okei) = niko vizuri

I am not so bad(ayem not so bad) = niko vizuri kidogo

unaweza vilevile kuuliza ulizo hizi kwaku taka kujuwa habari ya mutu:

how are you doing?(hawayu duing) = habari gani?

I am doing well(ayem duing wel) = niko vizuri

Wakati unataka kujuwa habari ya mutu mwengine uta uliza hivi:

how is john?(hawiz jon) = habari ya john?

john is fine (jon iz fain) = john iko vizuri

how is bahati?(hawiz bahati) = bahati iiko namna gani?

Bahati is very welll(bahati iz veri wel) = bahati iko vizuri

how is your father?(hawiz yor faza) = habari ya baba yako?

my father is just okay(mai faza iz jast okei) = baba yangu iko vizuru

how is your sister?(hawiz yor sista) = habari ya dada yako?

my sister is alright(mai sista iz ol-rait) = dada yangu iko vizuri

unaweza vilevile ku uliza habari yamambo mengine siitu ya mtu hata ya fasi fulani nakazalika,kwamfano:

how is bukavu?(hawiz bukavu) = habari ya bukavu ?

bukavu is fine( bukavu iz fain) = bukavu iko vizuri

how is your job?(hawiz yor job) = habari ya job(ayubu)?

my job is okay(mai job) = kazilangu liko vizuri 

 

Namna ya pili

unaweza tena kutumiya HOW wakati unataka kujuwa myaka ya mtu
How old are you?(haw oldayu?) = una myika mingapi?

I am ten years ago(ayem ten iyaz ego) nina myaka mitano

ukitaka una weza kutowa ``years ago``.nahapo utasema hivi:

how old are you?,kisha una jibu

I am ten (ayem ten) nina myaka mikumi

 

Namna ya tatu:

unaweza tumiya HOW kwa kuuliza bei yakitu

how much do you sell this?(hau mach duyu sel dis) = una uzisha iyi kwa bei gani?

how much does it cost?(hau mach dazit kost) = ina uzwa kwa bei gani?

 

Namna ya ine

 

tunaweza tena tumiya HOW wakati tuna taka kjuw namna gani tendo ina fanyika

kwa mfano:

how do you cook?(hau du yu kuk) = una piga namna gani?

how are you speaking(hawayu spiking yu spiking ) = ukona sema namna gani

 

Simple and pro service

Create a website

Asking names

WHO(hu) = NANI

tuna tumiya WHO kwaku uliza jina ya mutu

mfano:who are you ?(huwayu) = una itwa nani?

           I am Joule (ayem joule) = mimi ni Joule

 

           who is your sister?(huwiz yor sista:) = dada yako ana itwa nani

          my sister is bijoux(mai sista iz Bijoux) = dada yangu anaitwa Bijoux

 

          who is this( huwiz dis) = huyu ni nani

          this is Pascal( dis iz paskal) = huyu ni Paskali

 

         who is at home ?(huwiz at hom) =  nani iko nyumbani?

          Alice is (alice iz) = alise.

 

          who are you talking to(huwayu toking tu) = uko naongeya na nani?

          I am talking to Safi( ayem toking yu safi) niko na ongeya na safi.

 

         Who will be there?(hu wilbi der) = nani ata kuwa pale.

         carine will be( carine wilbi) = carine ,carine ata kuwa.

 

         who am I in front of God?(hu emai in frontov Gad) = mimi ni nani mbele ya mungu.

I am nothing( ayem nathing) = mimi sikitu.

 

PAST = WAKATI ULI PITA

 

wakati una taka kujuwa jina ya mutu ambaye aliye  tenda tendo fulani kwawakati wazamani ama ulio pita ,una weza kutumiya namna hizi.

 

who was you president last year( hu woz yor prezident last iya) = nani alikuwa rahisi wenu mwaka  uliyo pita.

he was Kabila (hi waz kabila) = alikuwa Kabila.

 

who did this?(hu did dis) = nani ali fanya hivi?

it 's your father( its yor faza :) = ni baba yako

 

who took my money(hu tuk mai mani) = nani alichukuwa pesa yangu

it's your wife(its yor waif) = ni mke wako

 

 

 

 

      

 

Asking  a place.

Wakitauna taka kujuwa nimaali gani mtu fulani ana ishi ama kiyu fulani ina patikana uta uliza hivi:

 

where do you live? (wer du yu liv) = Una ishi wapi?

I live Chicago( I liv in chikago) = naishi chicago

 

where does your mother live?(wer daz yor maza: liv) = mama yako ana ishi wapi

my moyher lives in Bukavu( mai maza: liv in bukavu) = mama yangu ana ishi bukavu

 

whre is your home?(weriz yor hom) = makao yako ina patikana wapi ?

my home is in congo( mai hom iz in congo)  = makao yangu ina patikana congo

 

where do you work(wer du you we:k) = una fanya kazi wapi?

i work in london( ai we:k in landan) = na fanya kazi hulo landan

 

where do you study ?(wer du you stadi) = una someya wapi?

i study at ottawa university(ai stadi at otawa yunivasiti) = nasoma kwa chuo chikuu cha ottawa 

 

where do you go to church( wer du yu go tu che:ch) = wapi una enda kwa kanisa

I go to a pantecostal church in joliette(ai go tu e pantekostol che:ch in joliette) = na enda kwa kanisa laki pentecoste ya joliette.

 

ADJECTIVES

ADJECTIVES:nima neno(mots)ambazo zinazo eleza hali ya mutu,ya nyama,ya kitu,naya mahali Fulani.

For exemple;

  • A great leader (e grit lida)=muongozi mukubwa

  • A risky road[e riski rod]=balabala la hatari

  • A green car[ egrin ka]=gari la kimajani,un vehicul verte

  • A broad way [e brod wei]=njia pana,un chemin large.

N.B;Kuna wakati ambao tuna weza kutumiya adjectives(elezo)zaidi ya moja ndani ya musemwa.

For exemple:

A tall,shy,angry,black,sleeping girl

[e tol,shai,engri,blak,sliping gel]=

=Musichana murefu,wa haya,wa hasira, mweusi, na wa kulala-lala

=Une fille longue,timide,colorique,noiratre et dormaise

MUTINDO WA MAELEZO (ADJECTIF)

Zimoja  zimetumiwa mbele ya jina

Eg;A brave horse [e brav ho:s]=farasi shujaa

A clean house [e klin haus]=nyumba safi

A cruel man [e kruwel man]=mwanaume muuwaji

ZINGINE ZIME PASHWA KUWA MBELE YA JINA

Real [riyol]=reel(ya kweli)

Huge [yudj]=grand (kubwa)(yamukubwa)

Actuel [akchol]=Actuel=yasiku izi

Eg;a actuel  situation[en akshol sitiweshen]=la situation actuelle=hali ya siku hizi

ZINGINE ZINAKUYA NYUMA YA VERBE ETRE

Joule is black [joule iz blak]=joule est noi

This maid is cruel [zis med iz kruwel]=uyu mwana muke nimu uwaji

I am brown [am brawun]=niko mwekunda

NA ZINGINE ZIME PASHWA KUYA NYUMA YA JINA

e.g;A gap,asleep,awake

Jack is agape [jakiz e geip]=jack ame shangaa (ana acha kinywa wazi)

Basubi is asleep [basubi iz asli:p]Basubi analala( iko mubusingisi)

We  are awake [wiyarewek]=tuko mecho(hatulale)

N.B:wakati neno  mbili zime fatana,ya kwanza inakuwa “adjectif”naya pili ina bakiya

Jina.

EG. Car battery[kar batri] =baterie ya gare

Development act[development act]=kitendo ya maendeleo

Kuna verbs ambazo zime tumiwapamoja na Adjectif kwa sababu zime ongeya amazimepana hali ya sujet.

Sujet[sujet]=anaye tenda

Eg ;Appear, look,seem,be feel ,sound,smell,tastes

Eg;I seem very later[ai sim very leit] nimefanana mwenye kuchelewa

  • She appears a humble person[shi apiaya e-hambol peson]=ana fanana mutu mupole.

  • The toilets smell very badly[zo toyilets smel very badly]=choo(wc)zime nuka vibaya sana

NB:wakati kuna kuwa adjectiv zaidi ya moja ndani musemwa,kuna kuwa utaratibu ambayo uta fata.

UTASEMA IVVI

USI SEME IVI

A big black car

A black big car

Rwandese basket

Rwandese clean basket

NB: Kuna wakati ambapo adjectiv zime unganishwa kwa musaada ya “conjunction de coordination” and=et=na

Eg: A long,la:dj,en deep river]=mutoni ndefu,pana na yenye urefu chini=une riviere longue,large et profonde

ADVERBES

Nima neno ambazo zina ongeya namna ani tendo filani ina tendeka

  • Tena ina kuwa neno ambayo inayo ongeza maana ama ku fasiria verbe (tendo).Adjektif(elezo) na zingine ma adverbe vizuri

  • Tena zina weza ku ongeya kuusu wakati gani ama mahali gani tendo ilitendeka

 

FORMATION DES ADVERBES

 

Adverbes Nyingi zime jengwa kwa kuongeza “Iy”mwisho ya adjektifs mufano

 


ADJEKTIF

FRANC

ADVERBES

PHONET

FRANCAIS

Wise

Sage,calme

Wisely

Waizili

Avec Sagesse

Quiet


Calme

Quietly

Kwaitli

Calmement

Love

Amour

Lovely

Lovli

Amouresement

Proud

Fier

Proudly

Praudli

Fierement

Quick

Rapide

Quickly

Kwikly

Rapidement

Kind

Gentils,mtaratibu

Kindly

Kaindli

Gentiment

Patient

Patient

Patienttly

Peshientli

Patiement

Practice

Pratique

Practically

Praktikali

Pratiquement

Hope

Espoir

Hopefully

Hop-fuli

Avec  L’espoir

Joyful

Joyeux

Joyfully

Joifuli

Joyeusement

Scornful

Meprisant

Scornfully

Scorn:fuli

Avec coleur

Angry

Colerique

Agrily

Angrili

Avec coleur

Pretty

Joli

Pretilly

Pretli

Joliment

Lazy

Pareseux

Lazily

Lezili

Avec Paresse

Heavy

Lourd

Heavily

Hevli

Lourdement

Humble

Humble

Humbly

Humbli

Humblement

Miserable

Miserable

Miserably

Miserabli

Miserablement

True

Vrai

Truly

Truli

Vraiment,Reelement

 

N.B:Kama  adjective ina isha na “L”kwa kuifanya adverbe  de maniere una pashwa double ile L kisha una tiya Y kumwisho .

e.g;real=really

e.g;kama adjective inaisha na “y”inabadilishwa na “l”kasha una tiya”ly”kule mwisho

e.g;lazy-lasily

kama inaisha na “e”ina omba itoshwe lakini sikwa ma adjectif zote

e.g;humble-humbly

lakini:wise=wisely

notice:kama ile adjective ina isha na “le”njo inafaa kwa maranyingi ku tosha

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE FORMS

Active form=Voix active

Tuna tumiya “voix active” kwaku onesha kama ni sujet(mutu Fulani,kitifulani)njo ina(ana)fanya tendo Fulani

  • I eat the rice[ai it ze raisi]=mina kula muchele(NB:Le sujet  fait l’action)

Passive voice=voix passive

Tuna tumiya”voix passive”kwaku onesha kama tendo Fulani ina fanyika na mutu falani.

Tena kwa onesha kama mutu Fulani ana tendewa  kitendo Fulani (NB:le sujet subit l’action)

Exemple:He is killed [hi iz kild]=ana uwawa

 

NB;kuna wakati ambawo una weza kutiya jina ama”prenom” ya mutu ambaye ama ya siku ambacho(ambaye)ali (ili)tendea sujet kitendo Fulani na apo uta tiya.

“by”[bai]=par=na =kwa

Joule teaches English[joule tichiz inglish]joule ana fundisha kingereza  (voix active)

English is taught by joule [inglish iz tout bai joule]=kingereza ime fundishwa na joule[voix passive]

They kill his father [zei kill his faza]=bana uwa baba yake

His father is killed by them [hiz faza iz kildi bai zem]=baba yake ana uwawa na hao(nabo)=par eux

PRESENTS SIMPLE TENSE

Apa” present simple”ita badilishwa na musemwa ambamo muna verbe etre(au present)

Plus participle passé du verbe conjugue=am,is are,+past participle.

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

I

eat

object

i

am

V(partic)

By


YOU

Do


object

you

are

V(pp)

by

HE,SHE

plays

object

He, she,


V(pp)

by

IT

goes

object

it

is

V(pp)

by

WE

come

object

we

are

V(pp)

by

YOU

go

object

you

are

V(pp)

by

THEY

think

object

they

are

V(pp)

by

I give him=he is give by me